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Civil Engineering

posted 3 months 2 weeks ago
The steel reinforcement mostly is divided into two categories i.e.

Primary Reinforcement or Main Steel reinforcement
Secondary reinforcement or distribution reinforcement

Main steel reinforcement bars are employed in R.C.C structures to ensure resistance against the whole design loads coming over it.
The secondary reinforcement bars are mainly employed due to durability as well as for aesthetic reasons.

This reinforcement guarantee resistance for localized areas, like limited cracking. These also offer resistance against the stresses that are created due to temperature variations
The stirrups are reinforcements that are provided laterally, to keep the main bars of the structural elements like beams and columns, in position
The stirrups may be circular, square, rectangular, helical or diamond shape based on the cross-section of the structural element.
The reinforcement bars in the corners may be L – shaped.

The caging for the structural element under consideration must be properly tied, so that during concreting no bar is disturbed from its position

The rebars are mainly provided at the junctions where the formwork of the structural element is closed as well as at the point where a new structural element needs to be bond with the former one.

Bar bending schedule provides details of reinforcement cutting and bending length. Advantages of bar bending schedule when used along with reinforcement detailed drawing improves the quality of construction, cost and time saving for concrete construction works.

Repairs and rehabilitation of concrete structures, which of late has become an activity comparable to construction itself worldwide, is mostly because deterioration of concrete due to corrosion of embedded steel.

Nearly 40% of failure of concrete structures is due to corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement.

Ideally speaking, a good concrete is supposed to provide adequate protection to the embedded steel. This is due to the protective alkaline environment (pH value as high as 12.5) provided by fresh concrete resulting in formation of protective coating on the surface of the steel, which passivates it from further corrosion.

However, over the passage of time, due to carbonation or ingress of chloride ions, pH value starts declining slowly and alkaline surrounding of the reinforcement bar is lost, heralding the corrosion process, which in turn causes cracks and spalling of concrete. It would thus be realized that the crucial factor giving quality and durability of concrete appears to be its impermeability, which can be ensured by providing sufficient cement content, low w/c ratio, complete compaction and curing. The same can be further improved by using proper admixtures and providing increased concrete cover.


There can be many causes for corrosion of reinforcement, but mostly it is related to quality of concrete, environment and quality of construction practices. So, the first step in corrosion control of rebar is to provide good quality of concrete through good construction practices. The quality of concrete materials, mixing, placing and compaction techniques and good workmanship can help control the rebar corrosion.

Methods of Corrosion Control of Reinforcement in Concrete:

1. Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC)
2. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC)
3. Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD)

The corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete is complex, but basically it is an electrochemical reaction similar to that of a simple battery. The composition of mild steel varies along its length and potential anodic (more negatively charged) and cathodic (positively charged) sites can be set up at various points.
Thus, it becomes necessary to provide additional protection to reinforcement steel, especially because of chloride induced corrosion (worse than carbonation corrosion) which can develop even in good quality concrete.

Maintenance of passivation is conditional on an adequately high pH of the pore water in contact with the passivating layer. Thus, when the low pH front reaches the vicinity of the surface of the reinforcing steel, the protective oxide film is removed and corrosion can take place, provided oxygen and moisture necessary for the reactions of corrosion are present.

The differences in electrochemical potential can arise from differences in the environment of the concrete. Electrochemical cells form also due to a variation in salt concentration in the pore water or due to a non-uniform access to oxygen.
When there exists a difference in electrical potential along the steel in concrete, an electrochemical cell is set up: there form anodic and cathodic regions, connected by the electrolyte in the form of the pore water in the hardened cement paste.

It can be seen that oxygen is consumed and water is regenerated but it is needed for the process to continue. Thus, there is no corrosion in, dry concrete, probably below a relative humidity of 60 percent; nor is there corrosion in concrete fully immersed in water, except when water can entrain air, for example by wave action.

The transformation of metallic iron to rust is accompanied by an increase in volume, which depending on the state of oxidation, may be as large as 600 percent of the original metal. This volume increase is believed to be the principal cause of concrete expansion and cracking. It should be noted that the anodic reaction involving ionization of metallic iron will not progress far unless the electron flow to the cathode is maintained by consumption of the electrons at the cathode; for this the presence of both air and water at the surface of the cathode is absolutely necessary.

Factors Influencing Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement

pHvalue,Moisture,Oxygen,Carbonation,
Chlorides,Ambient temperature and relative humidity,Severity of exposure, Quality of construction materials,
Quality of concrete,Cover to the reinforcement,Initial curing conditions, andFormation of cracks.

Damages to Concrete Due to Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement
Stage 1: Formation of white patches
Stage 2: Brown patches along reinforcement
Stage 3: Occurrence of cracks
Stage 4: Formation of multiple cracks
Stage 5: Spalling of cover concrete
Stage 6: Snapping of bars
Stage 7: Buckling of bars and bulging of concrete

Minimizing the Risk of Steel Reinforcement Corrosion
*Quality of Concrete
*Depth of Reinforcement Steel Cover
*Materials of Concrete Construction
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Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 2 days ago
Development parameters of a country are defined by the level of infrastructure it maintains. It may be termed as the length of Highways, Railways,Buildings and the ecosystems provided within a nation .Like most of the developed countries fulfill all these parameters and provide there citizens the basic as well as comfort infrastructure.
                  While developing these huge infrastructure the nation spends lots of its GDP in it but as the the matter always fixes at quality is important than quantity ,the term Infrastructure asset
Management comes into play. The quality of asset we maintain will finally decide the health of the nation. For an example if a person is travelling on a road full of potholes he will face psychological as well as physical problem in passing through the path it will deter his health on long run,while the creation of these roads takes a long time and heavy investment there is always a need to maintain these ways whether its road or rail keeping in mind the depreciation of every object in this world. Infrastructure asset management is all about maintaining these capacity developed on a long run with huge investment .
                            Maintenance is a term important in these respect as all the things in this universe carries certain depreciation value. As per a government report 50% of government expenditure are incurred on the asset maintenance. While most of the government projects run on newer concepts of BOOT,PPP,OPMRC etc where the agency constructing these are made responsible for maintaining them for a certain period which helps in maintaining a healthy infrastructure with minimal cost.
                        The importance of Infrastructure asset management is important in many ways which can be illustrated through following points :-
1.   It helps in improving the health of nation like a better and efficient connectivity will enhance the life standard and business operation. For an example China is working on a project OBOR ( One belt One road ) which aims to connect major Asian countries will finally helps in improving the economy with such a huge infrastructure.
2.    As per a study most of the floods are caused due to breaches of embankments which are a result of poor maintenance so putting emphasis on the maintenance of these embankments considering it as an infrastructure can save many lives.
3.    Maintaining a schedule of establishment like periodical repairs, alterations etc all comes under the Infrastructure asset management.
                              The role of government is important as the basic infrastructure is developed by them with huge investment and putting a mechanism for the management of these assets will finally helps in  improving the quality of life .The implementation of IAM can be done in following ways. :-
1.    Implementing a maintenance policy for the assets to be created.
2.    Providing cost of the maintenance in the project for a specified period .
3.    Working on quality plan rather than quantity to improve the conditions of infrastructure created.
4.     Use of updated technology to enhance the quality of infrastructure and increasing the life span .
                        So in my view Infrastructure asset management is an important term in todays context as to optimize the cost and life span of created infrastructure and enhance the quality of living .
Like | 1 View | 209

Computer Science

posted 4 months 5 days ago
Introduction: If there exist k independent solutions to the time-partition constraints of a loop nest, then it is possible to transform the loop nest to have k outermost fully permutable loops, which can be transformed to create k1 degrees of pipelining, or to create k 1 inner parallelizable loops. Furthermore, we can apply blocking to fully permutable loops to improve data locality of uniprocessors as well as reducing synchronization among processors in a parallel execution.

Exploiting Fully Permutable Loops: We can create a loop nest with k outermost fully permutable loops easily fromk independent solutions to the time-partition constraints. We can do so bysimply making the kth solution the kih row of the new transform. Once theaffine transform is created, Algorithm 11.45 can be used to generate the code.

Example: The solutions found in Example 11.58 for our SOR example were

http://www.faadooengineers.com/notes/images/1/14/e366051e9c48e133d8a1fb88d57aa70d1.png


Making the first solution the first row and the second solution the second row, we get the transform

1 0 "

1 1

which yields the code in Fig. 11.51(a).

Making the second solution the first row instead, we get the transform

" 1 1

1 0

which yields the code in Fig. 11.51(c).

It is easy to see that such transforms produce a legal sequential program. The first row partitions the entire iteration space according to the first solution. The timing constraints guarantee that such a decomposition does not violate any data dependences. Then, we partition the iterations in each of the outermost loop according to the second solution. Again this must be legal because we are dealing with just subsets of the original iteration space. The same goes for the rest of the rows in the matrix. Since we can order the solutions arbitrarily, the loops are fully permutable.

Exploiting Pipelining: We can easily transform a loop with k outermost fully permutable loops into a code with k 1 degrees of pipeline parallelism.

Wavefr ont ing: It is also easy to generate k-1 inner parallelizable loops from a loop with k outermost fully permutable loops. Although pipelining is preferable, we include this information here for completeness.

We partition the computation of a loop with k outermost fully permutable loops using a new index variable i: where i is defined to be some combination of all the indices in the k permutable loop nest. For example, i = i ... ik is one such combination.

We create an outermost sequential loop that iterates through the i partitions in increasing order; the computation nested within each partition is ordered as before. The first k - 1 loops within each partition are guaranteed to be parallelizable. Intuitively, if given a two-dimensional iteration space, this transforms groups iterations along 135 diagonals as an execution of the outermost loop. This strategy guarantees that iterations within each iteration of the outermost loop have no data dependence.

Blocking: A k-deep, fully permutable loop nest can be blocked in ^-dimensions. Insteadof assigning the iterations to processors based on the value of the outer or innerloop indexes, we can aggregate blocks of iterations into one unit. Blocking isuseful for enhancing data locality as well as for minimizing the overhead ofpipelining.

Suppose we have a two-dimensional fully permutable loop nest, as in Fig. 11.55(a), and we wish to break the computation into b x b blocks. The execution order of the blocked code is shown in Fig. 11.56, and the equivalent code is in Fig. 11.55(b).

If we assign each block to one processor, then all the passing of data from one iteration to another that is within a block requires no inter-processor communication.

Alternatively, we can coarsen the granularity of pipelining by assigning a column of blocks to one processor. Notice that each processor synchronizes with its predecessors and successors only at block boundaries. Thus, another advantage of blocking is that programs only need to communicate data accessed at the boundaries of the block with their neighbor blocks. Values that are interior to a block are managed by only one processor.
Like | 1 View | 237

Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 1 week ago
With the advent of computers many of our day to day activities made simpler. As the customized approach towards a definite work can be done using computers by feeding the desired data. So our  civil engineering stream is also influenced by this phenomenon as in every stage whether its planning,controlling, organizing etc their is utility of computers in every field. The first and the foremost thing that a computer can do is to simplify tedious job.Through this blog I am going to discuss about the E- quality control where "E" stands for electronic.
                Scarcity of skilled manpower and other factors which influences a construction project are primarily responsible for the technological inclusion. When we plan something its in the office but the execution part is played at the site and also its the most important aspect so we need better skilled manpower and tools to carry this part..But in the absence of these or with inclusion of computers we can achieve better results. Various benefits includes:-
1. Less time consuming.
2. More efficient system.
3. Real time quality control.
4. Requires less manpower.
5. Reduce project cost.
                         E-quality control can be done by done using various forms  like installing web camera at site ,tools for on-site check like the production of ready mix concrete,data analyzer at site etc.Now a day with the increase in volume of project and change in process E- quality control is an upgraded option and need of the hour.
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Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 2 weeks ago
We all encounter interface with our surroundings in our day to day life ,the thoughts we communicate are as per this surroundings. Like if we visit a market the whole thoughts will be around product i .e., its price,quality,comparisons ,we work on various softwares with a specified user interface etc and so on various interfaces.
                         By above lines I tried to elaborate the importance of interface in our life being a user by the creators point of view. It keeps a great importance in our life it clearly decides the
Kind of energy we are interacting or transmitting .Like a simple example is that astutes often practice under a unfavorable human conditions so when we are thinking of changes like cleanliness around us then the first things is to make a holy soul .
                        In the same way public - private interface should be increased for both of them to develop better understanding and also to help them improve their suitability .such like improving the quotients of society one need to take up the job individually and then a chain of interface with others will lead to quick result. The various interface can sometimes have beneficial while sometimes having malicious effect such as:
1. A better interface between government and public i.e., implementing the schemes for public and making them aware about the scheme can help in strengthening the relation between both of them.
2. A good interface within the family can improve the stability between them .
3. A positive interface between humans and the nature can increase the stability of the universe like with lesser harming to the nature means deforestation ,killing of animals etc will help in balancing the stability of universe.
4. Just as when we are working on machines the kind of command we input the result will be according to it .
                         So in my view this interface carries a great importance in our life and the kind of input we give we will get result according to it and to keep us healthy we need to keep our interface healthy.

Like | 0 View | 196

Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 2 weeks ago
Democracy is the most acceptable form of government worldwide. As more and more public participation is infused in the process of governance to make the system transparent,in my view its the time to include the intelligence of public in solving the problem faced by us.
As we are having a mechanism in place to deliver goods and services to the nation through various modes. We need to develop a mechanism through which fresh or can say that compatible ideas can be infused into the system.
             Nowadays creative ways of delivering the services like the concept of "Make in India" and formation of "NITI AAYOG" and other platforms are created to infuse fresh and time correlated ideas into the system .The purpose of all these is to optimize the system and make way for creative ruling.
              This blog is all about how we can get maximum benefit from the population as we are having a pool of technical ,competent and experienced people who are part of selection but not part of the delivery mechanism. My idea is to involve them in the decision making and take benefit from the pool of talent which are wasted in the form of unemployability. As an example : a movement run by the government in the name of "SWACHH BHARAT ABHIYAN " which has the motive of cleaning the surrounding with the involvement of local authorities and public participation. In such scheme their exists various forms of wastes which needs to be catered like solid waste ,liquid waste and then the industrial waste all these cannot be treated in a single day ,we need to focus on every aspect and making huge participation of the public whether its physically and mentally will lead to a fruitfull result. So the basic behind this is to clean the system as we have pool of technical people and organizations which can come up with ways to reduce the burden over government machinery and also they can generate some revenues for carrying such schemes which finally leads to reduction in unemployability.
                         So its public participation that can do impossible things with ease and we need to trap those ideas through various modes of interface within the Democratic structure and trapping the potential of peoples intellect in solving complex issues which will affect them vice -versa.

Like | 1 View | 194

Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 2 weeks ago
We heard a famous proverb "Early to bed and early to rise makes a man Healthy wealthy and wise". We can say that making a good habit of timely sleep and discipline in adopting that clock will finally helps in achieving a good mental health and success in every sphere of life.
So certainly there exist a clock other than the visual clock which is in 24X7 format and to make full use of this we arrange our daily routine to optimise our potential.
                           As a normal human being I use to have a 8 hour sleep 8 hours of work and rest works and hobbies and miscellaneous items are distributed in the mean time .As the life progress es we use to get adapted with this routine and naturally the body start to respond to this timing i. e., when we put a timing of 10 pm for sleep we used get that alarm ringing every day for sleep at that time and as we crosses this timing its not possible to get an easy sleep .Through above discussion I mean to illustrate that as we try to understand our capabilities in the mean time of our growth we should also try to understand the timing set for our body and mind so that all our organs and all our mind are controlled or are in tandem with the physical phenomenon and physical clock .
                         Understanding Bio clock as an important concept as it controls our day to day activities and help us in optimizing our potential and lead a productive life todays life is full of ups and down causing stress to overcome this every human being should set their own Bio clock as per their requirement and helping us achieve our true potential and synchronizing life according to the pace .

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Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 3 weeks ago
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Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 3 weeks ago
India has experienced several major earthquakes in the past few decades and according to IS 1893 (part I) around 60% (12% in Zone V,18% in Zone IV ,26% in Zone III and 44% in Zone II ) of its landmass is prone to moderate -to-severe earthquake shaking intensity .The earthquake caused in recent times have clearly exposed the lack of understanding of seismic hazard of the country .Sometimes ,even when the hazard is understood ,lack of knowledge on earthquake resistant design and construction practice of reinforced concrete structure is exposed .The professionals dealing in building construction should be more concerned with the safety of building infrastructure during future earthquake event .
                  Various requirement for making a safe and reliable earthquake resistant design of structure are elaborated in concerned Indian standard codes such as IS 1893 ,13920 ,4326 etc .The stages of making a earthquake resistant structure constitutes Planning of the structure which according to IS 1893 a good and regular shape planning can mitigate the risk by upto 50% . Secondary the analysis of structure with a load combination of earthquake load in all the three dimensions and finally the detailing as per IS 13920 with special emphasis on junctions of column and beam .
                              The basic concept in earthquake resistant design is to make such a structure which can withstand the inertial forces caused by the ground movement and dissipation of energy in due course which means the structure should be ductile and energy absorbing. So my basic aim is to get an overview of the problem which needs to be catered immediately and make a safe habitable infrastructure.
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Civil Engineering

posted 4 months 4 weeks ago
A a person we born with a neutral mind i.e.,no bias but as we grow we came to find out our existence as in which religion we are born which caste we are born in and as we grow further we are idenfied by our art .
                               As we find from the above para  that how the life has taken roll on. In this situation the primary duty of every person is to work for the betterment of mankind which gave us the opportunity to see such a beautiful life .As a human being our aim should be to live for all and work above the lines of caste and creed .But as we see throughout the times that our lives are destroyed by ourselves through various acts of destruction like terrorism , naxalism, cold wars etc these all happens when we get involved into the feeling of giving i.e ., we started thinking about in which religion I born in ,from which caste am I and from which region of globe I am .
                          These all thoughts causes a conflict within ourselves and these conflicts later on transferred to our doings .My basic aim through this blog is that to get a inner view of the objects we see and lets transfer this thoughts to in our day to day activities so that the sole aim of human race remains to keep giving  to this planet much as we can as it gave us .
                          In due course of these conflicts we forget our real identity and also our real abilities with which we are born into this world .So think once that if someone has send you here with specific powers but in due course of your growth you forget your potential which are always for doing some good things as a result we often spend our lives in wastage doing unfruitful works.
      So always try to think over broader spectrum which helps everyone to identify there true potential.

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Civil Engineering

posted 5 months 1 day ago
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Civil Engineering

posted 5 months 2 days ago
I owe to write a blog over best construction practices as of my Nearly 10 years of experience I found that what we read during our engineering hours doesnt easily correlate with the side conditions and then there comes out ones experience as an engineer to fit the decision making as per conditions available.
                              As per my experience most of us study various aspects of civil engineering but we get little opportunity to work on all the aspects which we study. So point wise I like to detail the requirements to practice our passion I.e., civil engineering.
1. One should be well conversed with the codes published by competent authority as these were the binding data for field application .
2. Engineers should keep themselves updated with the recent development.
3. A quality for judging the things must be developed just as in spiritual manner of what I am doing, for whom I am doing and reason for associating a professional with the job.
4. Emphasis should be put over quality rather than quantity to have a best engineering practice.
5. Magnify the process to correlate yourself  with all the deeds and keep yourself  satisfied with the procedure.
6. Always believe that all your actions are predetermined as a professional approach.
                              Writing the above lines its clear that a professional should always differentiate the process by a common man doing the same job as a Engineer. Codes are the binding document for Engineers and they should be well conversant  and apply them to real life problem with all the intuition and expertise .
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