Date : 2016-06-23 12:24:21



Both ends are free (to expand or shrink) or one end fixed determinate structure:


Total change in length is equal to algebraic sum of change in length of each section of its

load P,

length L,

Area A,

and Young‟s modulus E.


These parameters may vary from section to section.

The material is free to expand and shrink.


                                                                                                 δL = δ1 δ2 δ3 ….. δn



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