Crane Hooks are highly liable components that are typically used for industrial purposes. It is basically a hoisting fixture designed to engage a ring or link of a lifting chain or the pin of a shackle or cable socket and must follow the health and safety guidelines.
Failure of Crane Hook
To minimize the failure of crane hook, the stress induced in it must be studied. Crane is subjected to continuous loading and unloading. This causes fatigue of the crane hook but the fatigue cycle is very low.
If a crack is developed in the crane hook, it can cause fracture of the hook and lead to serious accident. In ductile fracture, the crack propagates continuously and is more easily detectible and hence preferred over brittle fracture. In brittle fracture, there is sudden propagation of the crack and hook fails suddenly.
This type of fracture is very dangerous as it is difficult to detect.
Strain aging embrittlement due to continuous loading and unloading changes the microstructure. Bending stress and tensile stress, weakening of hook due to wear, plastic deformation due to overloading, and excessive thermal stresses are some of the other reasons for failure. Hence continuous use of crane hooks may in-crease the magnitude of these stresses and ultimately results in failure of the hook.
Thus, such an important component in an industry must be manufactured and designed in a way so as to deliver maximum performance without failure. Thus, the aim of the project is to study the stress distribution pattern of a crane hook using finite element method and verify the results using Photo elasticity.
Methodology of Stress Analysis
The analysis is carried out in two phase:
1) Finite element stress analysis of an approximate (acrylic) model and its verification by photo elasticity theory
2) Analytical analysis assuming hook as a curved beam and its verification using Finite element analysis of the exact hook.
To establish the finite element procedure a virtual model similar to the acrylic mode is prepared in ANSYS and the results of stress analysis are cross checked with that of photo elasticity. After establishing the procedure a virtual model similar to actual crane hook sample is created using CAD software and the results of finite element analysis are now verified with that of analytical method.